Influenza Transmission Dynamics in Urban Households, Managua, Nicaragua, 2012–2014
Gordon et al.
During August 2012–November 2014, we conducted a case ascertainment study to investigate household transmission of influenza virus in Managua, Nicaragua. We collected up to 5 respiratory swab samples from each of 536 household contacts of 133 influenza virus–infected persons and assessed for evidence of influenza virus transmission. The overall risk for influenza virus infection of household contacts was 15.7% (95% CI 12.7%–19.0%). Oseltamivir treatment of index patients did not appear to reduce household transmission. The mean serial interval for within-household transmission was 3.1 (95% CI 1.6–8.4) days. We found the transmissibility of influenza B virus to be higher than that of influenza A virus among children. Compared with households with <4 household contacts, those with >4 household contacts appeared to have a reduced risk for infection. Further research is needed to model household influenza virus transmission and design interventions for these settings.
CDC Volume 24, Number 10—October 2018